Important Articles of Indian Constitution
In this post we will look at the must know articles of Indian Constitution. Do remember that it is not expected from a UPSC aspirant to know all the articles in Indian Constitution by heart but they are expected to have a good knowledge of the nature and the salient features of Indian Constitution like Federalism, Separation of Powers, Fundamental Rights etc.
Must Know Articles of Indian Constitution
|Article 12 –35||Specifies the Fundamental Rights available|
|Article 36-51||Specifies the Directive Principles of state policy|
|Article 51A||Specifies the Fundamental Duties of every citizen|
|Article 80||Specifies the number of seats in the Rajya Sabha|
|Article 81||Specifies the number of seats in the Lok Sabha|
|Article 343||Hindi as official language|
|Article 356||Imposition of President’s Rule in states|
|Article 370||Special status to Kashmir|
|Article 395||Repeals India Independence Act and Government of India Act, 1935|
Brief overview of Parts of Indian Constitution
Part 1 – Art. 1 to Art. 4
- Article 1- Name and territory of the union.
- Article 2 – Admission and Establishment of the new state.
- Article 3 – Formation of new states and alteration of areas, boundaries, and the name of existing states.
Part 2 – Art. 5 to Art. 11
- Article 5 – Citizenship at the commencement of the constitution.
- Article 6- Rights of citizenship of a certain person who has migrated to India from Pakistan.
- Article 10- continuance of rights of citizenship.
- Article 11- Parliament to regulate the right of citizenship by law.
Part 3 – Art.12 to Art.35
- Article 12- Definition of the state
- Article 13 Laws inconsistent with or in derogation of the fundamental rights.
- Right to Equality: Art. 14 to Art. 18
- Right to Freedom: Art. 19 to art. 22
- Right against Exploitation: Art.23 & art. 24
- Right to Freedom of Religion: Art.25 to art. 28
- Cultural and Educational Rights: Art.29 & art. 30
ALSO READ : Fundamental Rights in India
Part.4 Directive Principal of states Policy: Art 36 to art. 51
- Article 36- Definition
- Article 37- Application of DPSP
- Article 39A- Equal justice and free legal aid
- Article 40- Organisation of village panchayat
- Article 41- Right to work, to education, and to public assistance in certain cases
- Article 43- Living Wages, etc. for Workers.
- Article 43A- Participation of workers in management of industries.
- Article 44- Uniform civil code.( applicable in Goa only)
- Article 45- Provision for free and compulsory education for children.
- Article 46- Promotion of educational and economic interest of scheduled castes, ST, and OBC.
- Article 47-Duty of the state to raise the level of nutrition and the standard of living and to improve public health.
- Article 48-Organisation of agriculture and animal husbandry.
- Article 49- Protection of monuments and places and objects of natural importance.
- Article 50- Separation of judiciary from the executive.
- Article 51- Promotion of international peace and security.
Part 5 – Union ( 52-151)
- Article 52- The President of India
- Article 53- Executive Power of the union.
- Article 54- Election of President
- Article 61- Procedure for Impeachment of the President.
- Article 63- The Vice-president of India.
- Article 64- The Vice-President to be ex-officio chairman the Council of States.
- Article 66-Election of Vice-president.
- Article 72-Pardoning powers of President.
- Article 74- Council of Ministers to aid and advise President.
- Article 76- Attorney-General for India.
- Article 79- Constitution of Parliament
- Article 80- Composition of Rajya Sabha.
- Article 81- Composition of Lok Sabha.
- Article 83- Duration of Houses of Parliament.
- Article 93- The speakers and Deputy speakers of the house of the people.
- Article 105- Powers, Privileges, etc of the House of Parliament.
- Article 109- Special procedure in respect of money bills
- Article 110- Definition of “Money Bills”.
- Article 112- Annual Financial Budget.
- Article 114-Appropriation Bills.
- Article 123- Powers of the President to promulgate Ordinances during recess of parliament.
- Article 124- Establishment of Supreme Court.
- Article 125- Salaries of Judges.
- Article 126- Appointment of acting Chief justice.
- Article 127- Appointment of ad-hoc judges.
- Article 128-Attendance of a retired judge at sitting of the Supreme Court.
- Article 129- Supreme court to be a court of Record.
- Article 130- Seat of the Supreme court.
- Article 136- Special leaves for appeal to the Supreme Court.
- Article 137- Review of judgement or orders by the Supreme court.
- Article 141-Decision of the Supreme Court binding on all the courts.
- Article 148- Comptroller and Auditor- General of India
- Article 149- Duties and Powers of CAG.
Part 6 – States ( 152-237)
- Article 153- Governors of State
- Article 154- Executive Powers of Governor.
- Article 161- Pardoning powers of the Governor.
- Article 165- Advocate-General of the State.
- Article 213- Power of Governor to promulgate ordinances.
- Article 214- High Courts for states.
- Article 215- High Courts to be a court of record.
- Article 226- Power of High Courts to issue certain writs.
- Article 233- Appointment of District judges.
- Article 235- Control over Sub-ordinate Courts.
Part 7 – 238 – Repealed
Part 8 – 239-242 – Union Territories
Part 9 – 243-243 O – Panchayats
- Article 243A- Gram Sabha
- Article 243B- Constitution of Panchayats
Part 9A – 243 P-243 ZG – Municipalities
Part 10: Scheduled and Tribal Areas -244
Part 11: Center- State Relations 245 – 263
Part 12: Finance, Property, Contracts and Suits (264 – 300A)
- Article 266- Consolidated Fund and Public Accounts Fund
- Article 267- Contingency Fund of India
- Article 280- Finance Commission
- Article 300-A- Right to property.
Part 13: Trade, Commerce and Intercourse within the territories of India (301-307)
- Article 301-Freedom to trade, commerce, and intercourse.
- Article 302- Power of Parliament to impose restrictions on trade, commerce, and intercourse.
Part 14 : Services Under Center and State (308-323)
- Article 312- All- India-Service.
- Article 315- Public service commissions for the union and for the states
- Article 320- Functions of Public Service Commission.
Part 14A: Tribunals (323 A – 323 B)
- Article 323A- Administrative Tribunals
Part 15 : Elections (324 – 329)
- Article 324-Superintendence, direction and control of Elections to be vested in an Election Commission.
- Article 325- No person to be ineligible for inclusion in or to claim to be included in a special, electoral roll on grounds of religion, race, caste, or sex.
- Article 326- Elections to the house of the people and to the legislative assemblies of states to be on the basis of adult suffrage.
Part 16: Special Provisions to SC, ST, OBC, Minorities etc (330 -342)
- Article 338- National Commission for the SC, & ST.
- Article 340- Appointment of a commission to investigate the conditions of backward classes.
Part 17: Official Language (343- 351)
- Article 343- Official languages of the Union.
- Article 345- Official languages or languages of states.
- Article 348- Languages to be used in the Supreme Court and in the High Courts.
- Article 351-Directive for development of the Hindi languages.
Part 18: Emergency (352-360)
- Article 352- Proclamation of emergency ( National Emergency).
- Article 356- State Emergency (President’s Rule)
- Article 360- Financial Emergency
Part 19: Miscellaneous (361-367)
- Article 361- Protection of President and Governors
Part 20: Amendment of Constitution (368)
- Article 368- Powers of Parliaments to amend the constitution.
Part 21 : Special, Transitional and Temporary Provisions (369 – 392)
- Article 370 – Special provision of J&K.
- Article 371A – Special provision with respect to the State of Nagaland
- Article 371-J: Special Status for Hyderabad-Karnataka region
Part 22: Short Text, Commencement, Authoritative Text in Hindi and Repeals (392 – 395)
- Article 393 – Short title – This Constitution may be called the Constitution of India.