Factors Influencing Indian Climate
Following are the factors influencing Indian climate:
- Latitudinal location
- Distance from the Sea
- The Himalayas
- Monsoon Winds
- Upper Air Circulation
- El Nino and La Nina
- Tropical Cyclones and Western Disturbances
- Indian climate resembles the climate of a tropical country.
- The mainland of India extends between 8°N to 37°N.
- Areas south of the Tropic of Cancer are in tropics and hence receive high solar insulation. The summer temperatures are extreme and winters temperatures are moderate in most of the regions.
- The northern parts on the other hand lie in the warm temperate zone. They receive comparatively less solar insulation. But summer are equally hot in north India because of hot local wind called loo. Winter are very cold due to cold waves brought by the western disturbances.
- Some places in Himalayas record low temperatures particularly in winter.
- Coastal regions see moderate climatic conditions irrespective of latitudinal position.
Distance from the Sea
- Coastal regions have moderate or equable or maritime climate where as interior locations are deprived of the moderating influence of the sea and experience extreme or continental climate.
- The monsoon winds first reach the coastal regions and hence bring good amount of rainfall.
- This is the most important factor that influences Indian Climate.
- The Himalayas act as a climatic divide between India and Central Asia.
- During winter, Himalayas protect India from cold and dry air masses of Central Asia.
- During monsoon months these mountain ranges act as an effective physical barrier for rain bearing south-west monsoon winds.
- Himalayas divide the Bay of Bengal branch of monsoon winds into two branches – one branch flowing along the plain regions towards north-west India and the other towards South-East Asia.
- If the Himalayas were not present, the monsoon winds would simply move into China and most of the north India would have been a desert.
- Physiography is the most important factor that determines the mean annual rainfall received by a region.
- Monsoons winds flowing in Rajasthan and Gujarat are not obstructed by any orographic barrier and hence these regions receive no rainfall.
- Rainfall decreases form east to west in plains region (Indus-Ganga Plains) because in summer, there are many minor low pressure cells that exist all over the plain region. As the monsoon winds move from east to west the moisture levels decrease due to successive rainfall at each low pressure regions. By the time winds reach western parts of the plains (Delhi, Haryana etc.) all the moisture in the monsoon winds in exhausted.
- Places on the windward side of an orographic barrier receive great amount of rainfall where as those on the leeward side remain arid to semi-arid due to rain-shadow effect.
- On the contrary, vast areas of Maharashtra, Karnataka, Telangana, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu lie in rain-shadow or leeward side of the Western Ghats and receive scanty rainfall.
- The most dominating factor of the Indian climate is the ‘monsoon winds’.
Important features of Indian Monsoons are
- Sudden onset (sudden burst)
- Gradual progress
- Gradual retreat
- Seasonal reversal of winds
- The complete reversal of the monsoon winds brings about a sudden change in the seasons.
- The harsh summer season suddenly giving way to monsoon or rainy season.
- The south-west monsoons from the Arabian sea and the Bay of Bengal bring rainfall to the entire country.
- The north-eastern winter monsoon do not cause much rainfall except along the Caromandel coast (TN coast) after getting moisture from the Bay of Bengal.
Upper Air Circulation
- The changes in the upper air circulation over Indian landmass is brought about by Jet streams.
Westerly Jet Stream
- Westerly jet stream blows at a very high speed during winter over the sub-tropical zone.
- Southern branch of the jet stream exercises a significant influence on the winter weather conditions in India.
- This jet stream is responsible for bringing western disturbances from the Mediterranean region in to the Indian sub-continent.
- Winter rain and heat storms in north-western plains and occasional heavy snowfall in hilly regions are caused by these disturbances.
- These are generally followed by cold waves in the whole of northern plains.
Easterly Jet Stream
- Reversal in upper air circulation takes place in summer due to the apparent shift of the sun’s vertical rays in the northern hemisphere.
The westerly jet stream is replaced by the easterly jet stream which owes its origin to the heating of the Tibet plateau.
This helps in the sudden onset of the south-west monsoons.
Tropical Cyclones and Western Disturbances
- Tropical cyclones originate in the Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea and the influence large parts of the peninsular India.
- Majority of the cyclones originate in the Bay of Bengal and influence the weather conditions during the south-west monsoon season (low intensity cyclones).
- Some cyclones are born during the retreating monsoon season, i.e., in October and November (high intensity cyclones) and influence the weather conditions along the eastern coast of India.
- The western disturbances originate over the Mediterranean sea and travel eastward under the influence of westerly jet stream.
- They influence the winter weather conditions over most of Northern-plains and Western Himalayan region.
El-Nino, La Nina, ENSO and Indian Climate
- Adversely affects monsoon rainfall and cyclogenesis in Bay of Bengal.
- Good for cyclogenesis in Arabian Sea.
- Droughts are common during El Nino events due to less monsoonal and cyclonic rainfall.
- Good for monsoons and cyclogenesis in Bay of Bengal.
- Suppressed cyclogenesis in Arabian Sea.
- Floods are common.
- Southern Oscillation is simply the oscillation or alternating positions of low pressure and high pressure cells over eastern and western Pacific.
- Southern Oscillation coinciding with El Nino is called ENSO or El Nino Southern Oscillation. (SO usually coincides with EL Nino. This why El Nino is usually referred to as ENSO)
- ENSO = [warm water in eastern Pacific + low pressure over eastern Pacific] + [cool water in western Pacific + high pressure in western Pacific]
- Climatic conditions same as El Nino.